Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT)
Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Limit, continuity and
differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences
and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant
coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-
Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics:
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,
normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal
and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential
eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control;
Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration,
photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and
mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction,
conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.
their conformation; Ramachandran map; Weak inter-molecular interactions
in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes;
Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed
reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative
phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell
growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction; Biochemical and
biophysical techniques for macromolecular analysis.
Molecular Biology and Genetics:
Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and
control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes;
Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian
inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination
and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal
variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis
of genetic diseases and applications.
technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary
metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids,
exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial
production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial
enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large
scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods;
Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for
Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.
of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation;
Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch,
fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass
transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up
concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and
enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.
Plant and Animal Biotechnology:
features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of
plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major
metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth;
Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture
development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation,
nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant
suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation.
Techniques in raising transgencies.
Characteristics of animal cells:
regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal
cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect
of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro &
macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement;
Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal
The origin of
immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity;
Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and
Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing
and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis
of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement;
Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune
tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Recombinant DNA Technology:
Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage
and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial
chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning;
Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA
labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA
fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;
RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene
bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure
databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats,
scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and
Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative
genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular
modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force
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