Syllabus for Microbiology (XL: Section K)
Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of
microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in
transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.
Methods in Microbiology:
Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of
microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of
microorganisms; Light-, phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.
Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity:
Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts,
molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells:
Structure and Function
cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport
across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores
and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential
growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth;
Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.
Control of Micro-organisms:
Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of
Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism;
Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate
pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration;
Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty
acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids;
Regulation of major metabolic pathways.
Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction:
Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of
infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of
microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies;
Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases
caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification,
mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.
Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for
mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation,
transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of
gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with
special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA
viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.
Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms
associated with vascular plants.
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